Special Feature: Digital Power supply

Special Feature: Digital Power supply Sanken Power IoT

Glossary of Digital Related Terms

Term/ Abbreviation Full Form Definition
Analog-to-Digital Converter A unit that samples external analog signals and converts them to digital values. A 12-bit ADC converts the voltage amplitude of an analog signal to a digital value of 4096 steps (0 to 4095).
CPU Central Processing Unit A unit that fetches the program’s instructions stored in a memory (e.g., ROM) sequentially, and then decodes and executes them.
Digital-to-Analog ConverterA unit that converts digital values to analog signals, and then outputs them as external signals. A 10-bit DAC converts a digital value of 1024 steps (0 to 1023) to a voltage amplitude of the analog signal, then outputs it.
DSACDirect SFR Access ControllerA function that automatically transfers data among the peripheral function SFRs (Special Function Registers) by using events from the peripheral functions (e.g., comparator inversion, AD conversion end) as a trigger. This automatic data transfer is done without a CPU (ex.: ADC -> DSP -> PWM), thus allowing the control loop of a digital power supply to run by itself.
DSPDigital Signal ProcessorA unit that performs high-speed arithmetic operations (e.g., multiplication, multiply-accumulate calculation) for digital filter processing.
EPUEvent Processing UnitA compact 16-bit processor that switches tasks in zero time. An EPU handles up to 6 preprogrammed tasks with the corresponding events. By executing tasks in parallel with a CPU or a DSP, it can support any digital power supply control that requires high-speed processing.
Flash Memory-A type of ROM that can be electrically modified by a word write or a block erase.
GPIOGeneral Purpose Input/OutputThe external pins of an MCU that can be used as either digital input ports or output ports. When the GPIO serves as an input port, the pin level can be read from the CPU. When the GPIO serves as an output port, the pin level can be set by the CPU. In addition to this input/output port selection, GPIOs can also support peripheral function signals (e.g., PWM) or analog signals (e.g., ADC input, DAC output), and you can select their functions as needed.
I2CInter Integrated CircuitA unit that uses only 2 signals, clock and data, to transfer serial data. Because both the signals are driven by open-drain lines, I2C operates at a transfer rate of around 400 Kbps (bit per second). Serial data is transferable between multiple masters and multiple subordinates.
Term/ Abbreviation Full Form Definition
IDEIntegrated Development EnvironmentAn integrated development environment is a tool that runs on a PC for developing CPU programs. An IDE supports various functions, such as editor, C compiler, debugger, and so on.
IRCInternal Reference ClockAn internal clock oscillator
LVDLow Voltage DetectorA function that detects a voltage drop in a power supply.
MCUMicrocontroller UnitA microcomputer in which one or more CPUs, memories (e.g., ROM), and various peripheral functions are integrated into a single chip.
OCDOn-chip DebuggerA function that supports debugging the CPU programs stored in a chip.
PLLPhase-locked LoopA function that multiplies a clock frequency.
PORPower-on ResetA function that generates a reset at power-on.
PWMPulse Width ModulationA unit that generates a PWM waveform to control turning on/off a MOSFET used in a converter and the like.
RAMRandom Access MemoryA type of memory where data can be read from/written by a CPU etc. at random. RAM does not retain its content after power is turned off.
ROMRead-only MemoryA type of memory where data can only be read, not written, in general. Special operations are necessary to write or erase data like a flash memory. ROM retains its content even after power is turned off.
SARSuccessive Approximation RegisterThis term generally represents a type of ADC. So “SAR ADC” stands for a successive-approximation ADC. This type of ADC converts analog amplitudes into the nearest digital values by comparing the same number of times as the bit number.
Term/ Abbreviation Full Form Definition
SFRSpecial Function RegisterA register that configures and controls peripheral functions. This type of register can be accessed from a CPU or DSAC.
SPISerial Peripheral InterfaceA unit that transfers serial data in clock-synchronous communications using 4 lines: select signal, clock signal, transmission data, and reception data. SPI can operate at a high transfer rate of over 1 Mbps (bit per second). Serial data is transferable between a single master and multiple subordinates.
Timer-A unit that generates an interrupt periodically, outputs a pulse with a certain width or cycle, and measures the width of a pulse input externally.
UARTUniversal Asynchronous Receiver TransmitterA unit that transfers serial data with 2 lines, transmission data and reception data. In UART, both transmission and reception take place at the same transfer rate, with a synchronizing pulse generated at the start bit of transmission data. UART operates at a transfer rate of around 900 Kbps. Basically, it is one-to-one communication.
WDTWatchdog TimerA unit that detects an abnormal condition or a runaway (crash) condition in a CPU. If the CPU does not access any register in WDT within a certain period due to the CPU’s runaway condition etc., WDT then generates a reset signal for the whole chip.
Event-A condition arising out of any peripheral function (e.g., comparator inversion, AD conversion end) is called an event. An event signal is generated when other modules also need to recognize what has happened. For this reason, event signals pass across the functional modules inside a chip.
Interrupt-Some events occurred in the peripheral functions are defined as interrupt requests. When an interrupt request signal is generated, the CPU temporarily suspends its currently executing program, and then executes another program corresponding to the interrupt request. After processing the interrupt, the CPU resumes the suspended program.
Here are a few examples in which this interrupt processing is applicable: when a comparator detects an overcurrent condition; when the CPU must perform a predetermined process with a high speed; when the CPU must handle a periodical process according to a PWM cycle.

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